Anna Akhmatova (in virginity - Gorenko, her first husband, Gumilyov Gorenko, after the divorce has taken the name of Akhmatova, the second husband, Akhmatova Shileiko, after divorce Akhmatova; 11  June 1889, Odessa - 5 Martha 1966, Domodedovo, Moscow region) - Russian poet, translator and literary critic, One of the most significant figures of Russian literature of XX century. Nominee for the Nobel Prize for Literature (1965).
Her fate was tragic. Repression have been three of those close to her: first husband, Nikolai Gumilёv, He was shot in 1921 year; third husband, Nikolai Punin, He was arrested three times and died in the camp in 1953 year; The only son, lev Gumilёv, held in detention in 1930-1940's and in 1940-1950-ies more 10 years old. Woe to the wives and mothers of "enemies of the people" was reflected in one of the most important works of Akhmatova - poem "Requiem".
Recognized as a classic of Russian poetry back in the 1920s,, Akhmatova was subjected to silencing, censorship and persecution (including the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) 1946 of the year, not undone during her lifetime), many of the works have not been published at home not only in the author's life, but for more than two decades after her death. At the same time the name of Anna Akhmatova during the life surrounded by fame among fans of poetry as in the USSR, and in exile.
Anna was born in Odessa Gorenko's Greater Fountain in the family of a nobleman, mechanical engineer fleet retired A. BUT. Stepanov (1848—1915), became after moving to the capital of collegiate assessor, official for special assignments to the National Audit Office. She was the third of six children. Her mother, Inna Эrazmovna Stogovo (1856—1930), It was the distant relative of Anna Bunin: In one of his rough entry Anna Akhmatova recorded: "... no one in the family, how the eye sees all around, poems are not written, only the first Russian poet Anna Bunin was the aunt of my grandfather Erasmus Ivanovich Stogova ... ". His wife's grandfather was Anna Egorovna Motovilova - daughter of Yegor Nikolayevich Motovilova, married to Praskovya Fedoseyevna Akhmatova; her maiden name and elected Anna Gorenko as a literary pseudonym, creating an image of "Tatar-grandmother", which, allegedly, It came from the Horde Khan Akhmat. By this choice was involved father of Anna: learning about the poetic experiments seventeen year old daughter, He asked not to be ashamed of his name.
AT 1890 the family moved first to Pavlovsk, and then in Tsarskoye Selo, where in 1899 Gorenko, Anna Maria became a student of a girls' school. She spent the summer in Sevastopol, Where, in her own words:
"I got the nickname" wild girl ", because they went barefoot, I am wandering without a hat, etc., thrown from a boat into the open sea, bathed in a storm, and zagorala to Togo, that went the skin, and all of this shocked the provincial ladies Sebastopol ".
remembering childhood, poet wrote:
"My first memories - Tsarskoe Selo: green, raw magnificence of parks, pasture, where I drove the nurse, racecourse, where small motley horses galloping, the old station and something else, that entered later in the "Tsarskoye Selo ode".
Every summer I spent in Sevastopol, on the shore of the bay Musketeers, and there made friends with the sea. The most impressive of these years - old Hersonissos, about which we live ".
Akhmatova remembered, that learned to read in Morse Leo Tolstoy. Five years, listening to, as the teacher worked with older children, she learned to speak French. In St. Petersburg, future poet found "the edge of the epoch", in which Pushkin lived; at the same time he remembered her and Petersburg "dotramvayny, horse, horse, konochny, rumbling and grinding, hung upside to the signs of the head ". As he wrote N. Struve, "The last great representative of the great Russian noble culture, Akhmatova was a whole culture has absorbed and put into music ".
Entry in the register of birth of Anna Akhmatova. Odessa State. archive
His first poems she published in 1911 year ("New life", "Gaudeamus", "Apollo", "Russian Thought"). In his youth, adjoined Acmeists (collections of "Evening", 1912, "Beads", 1914). Characteristic features of creativity Akhmatova can be called faithfulness to the moral foundations of life, a keen understanding of the psychology of feelings, nation-wide understanding of the tragedies of XX century, conjugate with personal experiences, attraction to the classical style of poetic language.
Autobiographical poem "Requiem" (1935—1940; first published in Munich 1963, in the USSR - in 1987) - one of the first poetry, dedicated to the victims of the repression of the 1930s.
"Poem Without a Hero" (1940—1965, with respect to the full text first published in the USSR 1976) Akhmatova reflects her view of modern era, from the Silver Age to the Great Patriotic War. The poem is of outstanding importance as an example of modern poetry and a unique historical canvas.
In addition to poetry written by Akhmatova belong to the wonderful articles about the work of A. WITH. Pushkina and M. YU. Lermontov, memories of contemporaries.
Beginning with 1922 of the year, Book Anna Akhmatova subjected to censorship revision. WITH 1925 by 1939 year and 1946 by 1955 her poetry is not printed completely, apart from the cycle of poems "Glory to the world!» (1950). To 1964 year was "travel abroad".
The first relatively complete and scientific commented posthumous publication: And Akhmatova. Poetry and poems / under the order. AT. M. Zhirmunsky. - L., 1976. — (A large series of the poet's Library).
Poems of Anna Akhmatova, translated into many languages of the world.
Life and art
• 1900-1905 - studying at the gymnasium Tsarskoselskaya, then a year in Yalta.
• 1906-1907 - study in Kiev Gymnasium Fundukleyev. Among the teachers - the future famous philosopher Gustav Shpet, mathematician Julius Kistyakovsky.
• 1908-1910 - study at Kiev University for Women and the University for Women in literary history courses H. P. Rayeva in St. Petersburg. The first poem written in 11 years old. Father forbade sign poems name Gorenko, and she took the maiden name of her great-grandmother in the female line Paraskevi Fedoseyevna Akhmatova (in marriage - Motovilova), who died in 1837 year. Paternal Praskovja Fedoseyevna came from an old noble family princes Chagadaevyh, known since the XVI century, mother - from an old Tatar family Akhmatova, Russified in the XVII century.
• 1910 - in April, she married Nikolai Gumilyov.
• 1910-1912 - has twice been in Paris, He traveled to Italy. Impressions from these trips, of love in Paris with Modigliani had a marked influence on the work of the poet.
• 1911 - the first publication under the name "Anna Akhmatova" (earlier, at 1907, signed "Anna G." Gumilev published in Paris, her poem "On the hand of his many brilliant rings ..." in the titles it "Sirius" magazine. Success Magazine did not and almost immediately ceased to exist).
• The first book was published in March - a collection of "Evening", in the publication of "Guild of Poets" edition 300 copies.
• In October, a son - Lev Gumilyov.
• 1914 - in the spring for the first time out "clear" in the "Hyperborean" publishing house at that time considerable circulation - 1000 copies. To 1923 the year has been sustained more 8 reissues.
• 1917 - the third book, «White Room», published in the "Hyperborean" publishing house in circulation 2000 copies.
• in August took divorce from Gumilev.
• married Assyriologist scholar and poet Vladimir Shileiko.
• In April the publishing house "Petropolis" was a collection of "Plantain" edition 1000 copies.
• Summer - I broke up with in. TO. Shyleyko.
• on the night 3 on 4 August arrested, and then, in three weeks, shot by Nikolai Gumilyov.
• In October, the world saw the fifth book «Anno Domini MCMXXI» (lat. "In the year of our Lord 1921") the publishing house "Petropolis".
• 1922 - she became the wife of art critic Nikolai Punin:166.
• WITH 1923 by 1934 virtually no printed. According to L. TO. Chukovskaia ("Notes on Anna Akhmatova") many poems of those years have been lost in moving and during evacuation. Akhmatova herself in the article "About me" in 1965 , wrote:
"Since the mid 20's my new poems almost stopped printing, and old - to reprint ".
• 1924 - I settled in the "Fountain House".
• 8 June 1926 - decorated divorce Vladimir Shileiko, We are going to enter into a second marriage with B. TO. Andreeva. During the divorce has officially received the name of Akhmatova (before the documents bore the names of their husbands).
• 22 October 1935 - arrested, and a week later freed Nikolai Punin and Lev Gumilyov.
• 1938 - arrested and sentenced to 5 years in labor camps son - Lev Gumilyov.
• parted with Nikolai Punin.
• 1939 - admitted to the Union of Soviet Writers.
• 1935-1940 - wrote the poem "Requiem".
• 1940 - new, sixth collection: "Of the six books".
• 1941 - war met in Leningrad. 28 September to the insistence of doctors was evacuated first to Moscow, then in Chistopol, not far from Kazan, thence through Kazan to Tashkent. In Tashkent, there was a collection of her poems.
• 1943 - After the expiration of sentence Lev Gumilyov in Norilsklagere, began his reference to the Arctic. In the end 1944 , he went as a volunteer to the front, I came to Berlin.
• 1944 — 31 May Anna Akhmatova among the first to come back from the evacuation to Leningrad.
• Summer - a break in relations with Vladimir Garshin.
• 1946 - Decree Orgbûro CK VKP(b) of journals "Zvezda" and "Leningrad" from 14 August 1946 of the year, which it was subjected to sharp criticism creativity Anna Akhmatova and Mikhail Zoshchenko. Both of them were expelled from the Soviet Writers' Union.
• 1949 — 26 arrested in August H. n. Punin, 6 A November arrested. n. Gumilev. verdict - 10 s Forced Labor Camp. During all the years of her son's arrest, Anna Akhmatova did not leave attempts to get him. maybe, attempt to demonstrate loyalty to the Soviet power was the creation of the series "Glory to the world of poetry!» (1950). Lydia Chukovskaia in "Notes on Anna Akhmatova," writes:
quote "Cycle" Glory to the world " (actually - "Glory to Stalin") Akhmatova was written as a "petition to his Majesty". It is an act of desperation: Leo was again arrested 1949 year ".
• 1951 — 19 January to the proposal by Alexander Fadeyev Anna Akhmatova was restored in the Union of Soviet Writers.
• 1953 - in August at Camp Abez (Komi ASSR) Nicholas died Puning.
• 1954 - in December, he participated in the Second Congress of the Union of Soviet Writers.
• 1956 - returned from prison rehabilitated after the XX Congress of the CPSU Lev Gumilyov, wrongly believe, that the mother did not take much effort for his release. but Akhmatova 24 April 1950 g. Stalin wrote a letter with a request to release the son, which remained unanswered, but 14 July 1950 g. The Minister of State Security of the USSR. WITH. Abakumov sent Stalin a memorandum "On the need to arrest the poet Anna Akhmatova"; since that time the relationship between the mother and son were strained.
• 1958 - was a collection of "Poems"
• 1964 - in Italy I won "Etna-Taormina".
• a trip to England for the presentation of an honorary doctorate from Oxford University.
• published a collection of "Running Time".
• 5 March - died in a sanatorium in Domodedovo (Moscow region).
• 7 of March - in 22:00 of All-Union Radio sent the message about the death of prominent poetess Anna Akhmatova. Buried in the cemetery near Leningrad Komarovskoe. Authorities planned to be installed on an ordinary grave for Soviet pyramid, however Lev Gumilev together with his students built a monument to the mother alone, collecting stones which could and put a wall, as a symbol of "Crosses" wall, under which was his mother's son with gears. Initially, the wall was a niche, like a prison window, in the future this "recess" was closed with a bas-relief portrait of the poet. Cross, as bequeathed to Anna Akhmatova, It was originally a wooden. AT 1969 year on the grave and set a bas-relief by sculptor Cross A. M. Ignatieff and architects. P. Smirnova.